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Sunday, April 22, 2012

Chittoor district

Chittoor District చిత్తూరు జిల్లా, Urdu: چتور ضلع), also known as Chittur, is a district of India's Andhra Pradesh state. The district headquarters is Chittoor City. The district has a population of 4,170,468 according to 2011 census of India.[1] Chittoor district is famous for the Tirupati, Kanipakam and Sri Kalahasti temples. It lies in the Poini river valley of southernmost Andhra Pradesh, on the NH4 Bangalore-Chennai highway. It is a major market center for mangoes, grains, sugarcane, and peanuts. Major industries around the city are Amaron Batteries, nations leading automobile batteries, and Nutrine Confectionaries, a major chocolate/candies producer and this city is one of the major Granite, mango pulp producing centers of India.
Etymology
The word Chittoor is combination of two Tamil words Chit+oor(சிறிய+ஊர்=சிற்றூர்=சித்தூர்) which means Small Town in Tamil language. In ancient days, Chittoor was part of Tamil country of Thondai Nadu. Also said that the word Chittoor comes from Chittadavula Ooru (Dense Forest - in Telugu).
History
Chittoor District was formed on 1 April 1911, taking Chittoor, Palamaneru, Chandragiri from the then North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu and Madanapalli, Vayalpadu from Cuddapah and Punganur, Sri Kalahasti, Karvetinagar from Zamindari provinces to form united Chittoor district. Later in the late 1960s about 280 villages of chittoor district were added into the then Kanchipuram district and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu, thanks to the efforts of Ma. Po. Si. and other leaders.
[edit] Geography
Chittoor district occupies an area of 15,359 square kilometres (5,930 sq mi),[2] comparatively equivalent to Svalbard's Nordaustlandet.[3] The district is bounded by Anantapur District to the northwest, Cuddapah District to the north, Nellore District to the northeast, Krishnagiri District, Vellore District and Tiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu state to the south, and Kolar District of Karnataka state to the west. Chittoor district lies extreme south of the Andhra Pradesh state approximately between 12°37' - 14°8' north latitudes and 78°3' - 79°55' east longitudes.30% of the total land area is covered by forests in the district.[4] Mango and tamarind groves surround the city of Chittoor, and cattle are raised in the district. The soils in the district constitute redloamy 57%, red sandy 34% and the remaining 9% is covered by black clay black loamy, black sandy and red clay[4]
Chittoor is around 180KM from Bangalore, around 160KM from Chennai, and around 590KM from Hyderabad, state capital and around 1800KM from National capital Delhi.
[edit] Hydrology
The important rivers in the district are Ponnai and Swarnamukhi rivers which originate in eastern ghats. Other rivers include Kusasthali, Beema, Bahuda, Pincha, Kalyani, Araniyar and Pedderu. None of the rivers are perennial. Rivers include:
Swarnamukhi
Kalangi
Papaghni
Koundinya
Paleru
Arani
Pinchcha
Cheyyeru
Neeva
Kusasthali
[edit] Climate
The temperature in the western parts of the district like Madanapalle, Horsley Hills, Chembakur are relatively lower than the eastern parts of the Chittoor District. This is because of the higher altitude of the western parts compared to the eastern parts. The summer temperatures touches 46°C in the eastern parts whereas in the western parts it ranges around 36º to 38°C. Similarly the winter temperatures of the western parts are relatively low ranging around 12°C to 14°C and in eastern parts it is 16°C to 18°C.[5]
Chittoor District receives an annual rainfall of 918.1 mm. The South West Monsoon and North East Monsoon are the major sources of rainfall for the district. On average the district receives 438.0 mm of rainfall through the South West Monsoon (From June to September) and 396.0 mm from North East Monsoon (From October to December). The rainfall received by the district in the years 2002 and 2003 are 984.2 mm and 934 mm respectively.[6]
[edit] Economy
In 2006 the Indian government named Chittoor one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[7] It is one of the thirteen districts in Andhra Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[7]
[edit] Household indicators
In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1010 householdsin 38 villages across the district.[8] They found that 92.7% had access to electricity, 99.6% had drinking water, 33.3% toilet facilities, and 53.8% lived in a pucca (permanent) home.[8] 29.3% of girls wed before the legal age of 18[9] and 88.2% of interviewees carried a BPL card.[8]
Divisions
Assembly Constituencies
There are 14 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly MLA constituencies in Chittoor district. They are
Chandragiri
Chittoor
G.D.Nellore (Gangadhara Nellore)
Kuppam
Madanapalle
Nagari
Palamaner
Pileru
Punganur
Puthalapattu
Satyavedu
Srikalahasti
Thamballapalle and
Tirupati
Political divisions
There are 66 Mandals in Chittoor district.
Peddamandyam
Thamballapalle
Mulakalacheruvu
Peddathippasamudram
B.Kothakota
Kurabalakota
Gurramkonda
Kalakada
Kambhamvaripalle
Yerravaripalem
Tirupati Urban
Renigunta
Yerpedu
Srikalahasti
Thottambedu
Buchinaidu khandriga
Varadaiahpalem
Satyavedu
Nagalapuram
Pitchatur
Vijayapuram
Nindra
K V B Puram
Narayanavanam
Vadamalapeta
Tirupati Rural
Ramachandrapuram
Chandragiri
Chinnagottigallu
Rompicherla
Pileru
Kalikiri
Vayalpadu
Nimmanapalle
Madanapalle
Ramasamudram
Punganur
Chowdepalle
Somala
Sodam
Pulicherla
Pakala
Vedurukuppam
Puttur
Nagari
Karvetinagar
Srirangarajapuram
Palasamudram
Gangadhara nellore
Penumuru
Puthalapattu
Irala
Thavanampalle
Chittoor
Gudipala
Yadamari
Bangarupalem
Palamaner
Gangavaram
Peddapanjani
Baireddipalle
Venkatagirikota
Ramakuppam
Santhipuram
Gudupalle
Kuppam


source:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chittoor_district

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